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Happy Birthday John James Audubon

John James Audubon was a leading natural history artist who made drawings of birds directly from nature. He is mainly remembered for his Birds of America series. ISC-Audubon is in part John James Audubon smnamed after John James Audubon and today, April 26, 2013 marks the 228 Anniversary of his birth.

Early life and move to France
John James Audubon was born in Saint Dominigue (now Haiti) on April 26, 1785. He was the son of Jean Audubon, a French adventurer, and Mademoiselle Rabin, about whom little is known except that she was a Creole and died soon after her son's birth. Audubon was an illegitimate child, meaning that his father was not married to his mother. Audubon's father had made his fortune in San Domingo as a merchant, a planter, and a dealer of slaves. In 1789 Audubon went with his father and a half-sister to France, where they joined his father's wife. Their father and his wife adopted the children in 1794.

Audubon's education was arranged by his father. He was sent to a nearby school and was tutored in mathematics, geography, drawing, music, and fencing. According to Audubon's own account, he had no interest in school, preferring instead to fish, hunt, and explore the outdoors. He was left with his stepmother most of the time while his father served as a naval officer. Audubon became a spoiled, stubborn youth who managed to resist all efforts to both educate him and keep him under control. When residence at a naval base under his father's direct supervision failed to have any effect, he was sent briefly to Paris to study art, but he disliked that also.

Business career in America
Audubon's father decided to send his son to America, where he owned a farm near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. At first the boy lived with friends of his father. They tried to teach him English and other things, but after a time he demanded to live on his father's farm. There Audubon continued living the life of a country gentleman—fishing, shooting, and developing his skill at drawing birds, the only occupation to which he was ever willing to give effort. When Audubon began his work in the early nineteenth century, there was no such profession as a "naturalist" in America. The men who engaged in natural history investigations came from all walks of life and paid for their work—collecting, writing, and publication—from their own resources. Audubon developed a system of inserting wires into the bodies of freshly killed birds in order to move them into natural poses for his sketches.

In 1805 Audubon returned briefly to France after a long battle with his father's business agent in America. While in France he formed a business partnership with Ferdinand Rozier, the son of one of his father's associates. Together the two returned to America and tried to operate a lead mine on the farm. Then in August 1807 the partners decided to move west. There followed a series of business failures in various cities in Kentucky, caused largely by Audubon's preference for roaming the woods rather than keeping the store. During this period he married Lucy Bakewell. After the failures with Rozier, Audubon, in association with his brother-in-law, Thomas Bakewell, and others, attempted to start several more businesses, the last being a lumber mill in Henderson, Kentucky. In 1819 this venture failed and Audubon was left with only the clothes on his back, his gun, and his drawings. This disaster ended his business

"Birds of America"
For a time Audubon made crayon portraits (drawings of individual people) for $5 per portrait. Then he moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he became a taxidermist (one who stuffs and mounts the skins of animals) in the Western Museum that had been recently founded by Dr. Daniel Drake. In 1820 the possibility of publishing his bird drawings occurred to him. He set out down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, exploring the country for new birds and paying his expenses by painting portraits. For a while he supported himself in New Orleans by tutoring and painting. His wife also worked as a tutor and later opened a school for girls. She became the family's main financial support while Audubon focused on publishing his drawings.

In 1824 Audubon went to Philadelphia to seek a publisher. He met with opposition, however, from the friends of Alexander Wilson (1766–1813), the other major American ornithologist with whom Audubon had begun a bitter rivalry in 1810. He finally decided to raise the money for a trip to Europe, where he felt he would find greater interest in his drawings. He arrived in Liverpool, England, in 1826, then moved on to Edinburgh, Scotland, and to London, England, signing up subscribers for his volumes in each city. Audubon finally reached an agreement with a London publisher, and in 1827 volumes of Birds of America began to appear. It took eleven years in all for the publication and reprintings of all the volumes.

The success of Audubon's bird drawings brought him immediate fame, and by 1831 he was considered the leading naturalist of his country, despite the fact that he possessed no formal scientific training. There was an intense popular interest in the marvels of nature during this era. Anyone who could capture the natural beauty of wild specimens was certain to take his place among the front ranks of those recognized as "men of science." Audubon had succeeded in giving the world the first great collection of American birds, drawn in their natural habitats as close to nature as possible.

Later years
With his great work finally finished in 1838, and the Ornithological Biography (a text-only book about birds) in publication, Audubon returned to America to prepare a "miniature" edition. He also began drawings for a new book (in collaboration with John Bachman), Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America, for which his sons contributed many of the drawings.

In 1841 Audubon bought an estate on the Hudson River and settled down to advise and encourage young scientists. It was during this period that the romantic picture of Audubon as the "American Woodsman," the great lover of birds, began to emerge. After several years of illness, Audubon suffered a slight stroke in January 1851, followed by partial paralysis and great pain. Audubon died on January 27, 1851 and is buried in Trinity Cemetery in New York City.

SustainAbility Newsletter Archive Article (random)

Golfpreserves lends it

Golfpreserves

Golfpreserves® is pleased to join with Audubon Lifestyles and the Audubon Lifestyles Sustainable Golf Facility Program to further the environmental awareness and stewardship of the natural resources at the participating golf facilities.  For too long, golf course facilities have been viewed as detractors to the environment, rather than the environmental asset for which they hold the potential.  Programs such as the Sustainable Golf Facility Program bring to the golf facility and the public a mechanism of recognizing the importance of business and management activities at the golf facility that can clearly benefit the environment, and this important green space of our communities.

The intent of Golfpreserves® is to highlight the importance of the carbon dynamics at golf facilities, and how the asset of the sequestered carbon might be used to create needed research to further the environmental stewardship of golf.  In these difficult times, golf is stressed by the economic environment and the mobilization of information and assets not heretofore used is an intelligent way to facilitate golf’s recovery from the economic downturn of the day.  We look forward to working with you and others throughout the golf industry in improving golf’s use of its environmental assets and promoting this to the public.  Thank you for joining with us in these efforts.

We recognize the hard work that you have done to create Audubon Lifestyles and the Sustainable Golf Facility Program and we highly approve of it.

To view the Letter of support from Golfpreserves go to:
www.audubonlifestyles.org/programs/golf/golfpreservessupportletter.pdf

Visit the Golfpreserves website at: www.golfpreserves.com


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References and Sources used in this issue of SustainAbility Newsletter Include:

Audubon Lifestyles
www.audubonlifestyles.com

The International Sustainability Council
www.thesustainabilitycouncil.org  

The Reserve at Lake Keowee
www.thereserveatlakekeowee.com

The Old Collier Club
www.theoldcolliergc.com

The Rim Golf Club
www.therimgolfclub.com

Golfpreserves
www.golfcourseproject.com

Coke
www.coke.com

 

Energy Star
www.energystar.gov 

The Village of Blume
www.taylorpropertiesgroup.edu 

Taylor Properties Group
www.taylorpropertiesgrp.com  

Nike
www.nike.com

National Geographic
www.nationalgeographic.com 

American Society of Golf Course Architects
www.asgca.org

The United States Golf Association (USGA)
www.usga.org

    

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A Coalition for Good - Spreading the Seeds of Sustainability

ISC-Audubon is a coalition of non-profit organizations and initiatives that include The International Sustainability Council (ISC), Audubon Lifestyles, Audubon Outdoors, Planit Green, Broadcast Audubon, and the Audubon Network for Sustainability. 

Funds generated through memberships and donations are used to provide fruit & vegetable seeds, wildflower seed mix, and wildlife feed & birdseed to urban and suburban communities around the world. These seeds are used by communities to establish fruit and vegetable gardens, bird and wildlife sanctuaries, and for the beautification of urban and suburban landscapes by creating flower and native plant gardens.

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